Topology is the shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. In
other words, a topology describes pictorially the configuration or arrangement of a (usually
conceptual) network, including its nodes & connecting lines. Topologies are either physical or
logical. Ethernet uses topology to transfer the data.

There are some principal topology :-

  • Bus Topology : All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology.
  • Ring Topology : All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.
  •  Star Topology : All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.
  • Tree Topology :  A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
  • Mesh Topology : In this type of topology ,a host is connected to one or more than two hosts.This topology may have hosts having point- to- point connection to every other hosts or may also have hosts which are having points-to-points connection to few hosts only. 
  • Hybrid Topology :  A network Structure Whose design contains more than one topology is said to be  hybrid topology,Hybrid topology inherits merits & demerits of all the incorporating topologies. 


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