Introduction to Computer Components and Peripherals:

Computer Components and Peripherals:

A computer consists of several Physical components and each physical Component is designated to perform one of the operations like input, output,  processing, storage.
These  Physical components of a computer are called computer hardware.
The computer hard ware device can be attached internally or externally to the computer.Devices connected internal are called the primary components and connected external are called peripherals.

Primary components of computer: –

Below we discussed some of the devices that are attached internally  to the computer are called primary components:-
  • Motherboard : It is the Main circuit board accommodates processor slot ,chip-set, front side bus,controller bus, RAM , Slots , Extension Slots (PCI), Controllers & Connectors For internal components , Ports For keyboard & Mouse ,USB ports, Display Connectors ,Audio Processing Circuitry and connectors  For Speakers & Microphone, Parallel port For printer Connection , Serial port for data communications etc.
  • Processor: It is the Brain of the Computer  Data processing and Execution of the task is Performed in it.
  • CPU Heat Sink and Fan: Heat sink and Fan is Placed on the top of the processor to maintain the temperature at a pre-defined level. The Speed of fan can be controlled Based on the heat generated by the Processor.
  • RAM: RAM  (Random Access Memory) is a semiconductor Memory used as a temporary storage Supporting the Processor.CPU retrieves the raw data from RAM and pushes the Processed data to it.
  • Floppy Disk Drive: Used to Read, write floppy disks. A floppy Disk is a thin circular Plastic disk located with magnetic Material on the surface. The Plastic material of the disk is Mylar. The magnetic coating material is iron Oxide or barium ferrite. Floppy disk is also called “Diskette”.  It is a removable disk and it is used as a backup memory to Store Programs, Data and Other Information.Now, it is not in use commonly.
  • Hard Disk: It is magnetic Memory Device used for bulk/ permanent storage. The data stored in this can be retrieved Based on the requirement  .
  • Optical Drive: Optical drives are used to reading / write (Depends on the drive) data from the Optical media called CD-ROM, DVD ROM’s.These Optical media can store huge amount of data ranging from 700 MB to 4.5 GB compared to Floppy disk capacity of 1.44 MB.Some of the advantages are data portability and data retention.
  • SMPS: Switch Mode Supply Converts the Ac input into DC output. the Output voltages are constant Irrespective of the input voltages, The DC Out put of the SMPS will be fed to various Component of the computer .
  • Add on Cards: Modems,  Network card, PCI Express Card etc…

Add on cards are used to expand the computer functionalities.These are attached to the PCI slots available on the mother board. These are used based on requirement.

  • Modem card: Enables the Computer to connects to the Internets
  • Network Card: Enables the computer To Connects to the local Network
  • PCI Express card: Used display high-end 3D graphics


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