Introduction to Computer Components and Peripherals:

Computer Components (internal & external), and peripherals devices

Computer Components and Peripherals:

A computer consists of several Physical components and each physical Component is designated to perform one of the operations like input, output, processing, and storage.

These Physical components of a computer are called computer hardware.

Computer Peripherals

The computer hardware device can be attached internally or externally to the computer. Devices connected internally are called the primary components and connected externally are called peripherals.

Internal components of the computer: –

Below we discussed some of the devices that are attached internally to the computer are called primary components:-

  1. Motherboard: It is the Main circuit board that accommodates the processor slot, chip-set, front side bus, controller bus, RAM, Slots, Extension Slots (PCI), Controllers & Connectors For internal components, Ports For keyboard & Mouse, USB ports, Display Connectors, Audio Processing Circuitry and connectors  For Speakers & Microphone, Parallel port For printer Connection, Serial port for data communications etc.
  2. Processor: It is the Brain of the Computer, as it controls and coordinates all the activities of the computer’s hardware and software components. Also, known as a central processing unit (CPU), Data processing and Execution of the task are performed in it. The speed and performance of a CPU are measured in clock cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). The faster the clock speed, the more instructions the CPU can execute in a given amount of time. CPUs are designed with a specific architecture and instruction set, which can vary depending on the manufacturer and intended use
  3. CPU Heat Sink and Fan: The heat sink and Fan is Placed on the top of the processor to maintain the temperature at a pre-defined level. The Speed of the fan can be controlled Based on the heat generated by the Processor.
  4. RAM: RAM stands for “Random Access Memory”, and is a semiconductor Memory used as a temporary storage supporting the Processor. CPU retrieves the raw data from RAM and pushes the Processed data to it. RAM comes in different types and speeds, and the amount of RAM that a computer has can have a significant impact on its performance. Having more RAM allows the computer to run more programs simultaneously and to handle larger amounts of data more efficiently.
  5. Floppy Disk Drive: Used to Read, and write floppy disks. A floppy Disk is a thin circular Plastic disk located with magnetic Material on the surface. The Plastic material of the disk is Mylar. The magnetic coating material is iron Oxide or barium ferrite. The floppy disk is also called a “Diskette”.  It is a removable disk and it is used as a backup memory to Store Programs, Data and Other Information. Now, it is not in use commonly.
  6. Hard Disk Drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD): This is the storage device where the computer stores all its data and programs. It is used for bulk/ permanent storage. The data stored in this can be retrieved Based on the requirement. An HDD uses spinning disks to store data, while an SSD uses flash memory. SSDs are typically faster and more reliable than HDDs, but they are also more expensive.
  7. Optical Drive: Optical drives are used to read/write (Depending on the drive) data from the Optical media called CD-ROM and DVD ROMs. These Optical media can store huge amounts of data ranging from 700 MB to 4.5 GB compared to a Floppy disk capacity of 1.44 MB. Some of the advantages are data portability and data retention.
  8. SMPS: SMPS stands for “Switched-Mode Power Supply“. It converts the AC input into DC output. SMPS is more efficient than traditional linear power supplies, as it uses a switching transistor to rapidly switch the voltage on and off, which reduces energy loss and heat dissipation. It provides a stable and regulated power supply to connected devices, which is essential for their proper functioning.
  9. Add-on Cards: Add-on cards are used to expand computer functionalities. These cards are inserted into expansion slots on the motherboard, which provide a standardized interface for communication between the card and the rest of the computer system. These Cards are used based on their requirements. There are many different types of add-on cards available for computers, each designed to serve a specific purpose. Some common examples include:
    • Graphics cards: These cards are designed to improve the visual performance of a computer, allowing it to display high-resolution graphics and run demanding games or applications.
    • Sound cards: These cards improve the audio performance of a computer, allowing it to produce higher-quality sound output and support advanced audio features.
    • Network interface cards (NICs): These cards allow a computer to connect to a network, an internet or a local area network (LAN), and communicate with other devices on the network.
    • RAID controller cards: These cards provide additional storage functionality by allowing multiple hard drives to be combined into a single logical unit for improved performance and redundancy.
    • USB expansion cards: These cards provide additional USB ports for connecting peripherals, such as printers, scanners, and external hard drives.
    • TV tuner cards: These cards allow a computer to receive and display television signals, effectively turning them into a TV.

Must Read: Introduction of Computer Network.

External components of the computer:

Computer Peripherals: Devices that are connected to the computer and expand its functionality. Some common peripherals include:


This is the screen that displays the computer’s output. Monitors come in various sizes and resolutions. The resolution of a monitor refers to the number of pixels that can be displayed on the screen. When choosing a computer monitor, it’s important to consider factors such as screen size, resolution, refresh rate, response time, and connectivity options. These factors can affect the overall performance and usability of the monitor.

There are various types of computer monitors available in the market, including CRT (cathode ray tube), LCD (liquid crystal display), LED (light-emitting diode), and OLED (organic light-emitting diode) monitors. CRT monitors are now largely obsolete and have been replaced by the more modern LCD, LED, and OLED monitors.


This is the input device that allows the user to type text and input commands. Keyboards can come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including ergonomic and mechanical keyboards, and can be connected to a computer via USB or wireless connection. The standard keyboard layout includes a set of alphanumeric keys, function keys, navigation keys, and modifier keys.


This is another input device that allows the user to move a cursor on the screen and select items. The first computer mouse was invented in 1963 by Douglas Engelbart, and it was a wooden block with a single button and a pair of wheels.

Today’s computer mice are much more advanced, with optical or laser sensors that track movement and wireless connectivity to the computer. There are mainly two types of computer mice which are used mostly today i.e. wired and wireless.


This is an output device that prints text and graphics on paper. Printers are typically connected to a computer or other device using a USB or wireless connection, and they are controlled by printer drivers and software installed on the computer.

Modern printers often have advanced features, such as automatic document feeders, double-sided printing, and mobile printing capabilities. The most commonly available various types of printers are inkjet, laser, thermal, and dot matrix.


This is an input device that can scan paper documents and convert them into digital files that can be saved on the computer. The scanner typically uses a combination of light and sensors to capture the image of the physical media and then processes the data into a digital image file. Scanners are commonly used in offices and homes to digitize paper documents, but they are also used in industries such as healthcare, education, and engineering.

They are essential tools for digitizing, sharing, and archiving physical documents and media, and can greatly improve workflow and productivity. Some common different types of scanners are flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, and handheld scanners. Flatbed scanners are the most common type and are designed to scan flat objects such as documents, photographs, and books.


These are output devices that allow the computer to produce sound. They can be internal or external. Computer speakers come in various sizes, shapes, and configurations, ranging from simple stereo speakers to more advanced systems with multiple speakers and subwoofers for surround sound.



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